Rudrapur is a city in Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Located at a distance of about 250 km (160 mi) northeast of New Delhi and 250 km (160 mi) south of Dehradun, Rudrapur has a history of over 500 years. It was established in the 16th century by King Rudra Chand, and was the residence of the governor of Tarai region of Kumaon. The city continues to serve as the headquarters of the Udham Singh Nagar district apart from being a major industrial and educational hub today.
Rudrapur is located in the fertile Terai region over an area of 27.65 km2. With a population of 140,857 according to the 2011 census of India, Rudrapur is the fifth most populous city of Uttarakhand. Since the establishment of the State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand, the city has undergone rapid development, along with literacy growth and higher employment
The Terai area, where Rudrapur is located was considered an impenetrable forest for much of the ancient period. Marshy land, extreme heat, rains which lasted months, wild animals, diseases and no means of transportation prevented men from settling here. No historical settlements, except Govishana (50 kilometres (31 mi) northwest of the city), has been recorded in the area Mughal historians mention that the Chand ruler of Champawat, Gyan Chand, visited Delhi Sultanateand received the regions of Bhabar-Terai up to the Ganges as a grant from then Sultan;thus bringing it under the Kingdom of Kumaon. This area remained under local chieftains; it was Kirti Chand (1488–1503), who first ruled the Terai area, along with the rest of Kumaon.
Rudrapur town was established in the 16th century by King Rudra Chand of Almora It was the residence of the Adhikari (Governor) of Tarai, till the town of Kashipur was Established in 1718.:81 The Kumaoni Army, under Shiv Deo Joshi faced severe defeat during the Battle of Rudrapur, that was fought between Chands and Rohillas in AD 1744.:92 Later, King Deep chand built a fort at Rudrapur to keep vigil over the Rohillas.
By the end of Eighteenth century, Nand Ram, the Adhikari of Kashipur, murdered the governor of Rudrapur, Manorath Joshi, and declared himself the de facto ruler of the low-lying Terai land, with his capital at Kashipur. After the fall of Almora in 1790, Rudrapur and its surrounding areas were ceded to the Nawab of Oudh, who remained its suzerain until the British occupation in 1801.
In 1837, Rudrapur was annexed to the collectorate of Rohilkhand. Rudrapur was brought under Kumaon Division in 1858, however it was brought back to Rohilkhand division in 1861.In 1864-65 the whole Tarai and Bhabar was put under “Tarai and Bhawar Government Act” which was governed directly by the British crown. In 1891, the Tarai district was dismantled, and Rudrapur was put in the newly created Nainital district. Post independence Rudrapur and other parts of Nainital district were merged with United Provinces, which was later renamed the state of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University, the first agricultural university of India, was established near Rudrapur on 17 November 1960.The University was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru, and soon became a significant force in the development and transfer of High Yielding Variety seeds and related technology.
After Operation Blue Star in 1984, several Sikh extremists fled Punjab and took refuge in U.P. Tarai. Subsequently, several cases of explosions and Bombings were reported in 1991. A bomb blast occurred in Rudrapur market in mid 1991, and another bomb in a state roadways bus was defused in the nick of time.On 17 October 1991, Two bombs exploded at Ramlila celebration in the town, killing 41 people and wounding more than 140.Later, two members of the Khalistan Commando force were shot dead by a joint team of the commandos of the National Security Guard and the Delhi Police.
By 1994, the demand for separate statehood for Uttarakhand achieved almost unanimous acceptance among both the local populace and political parties all over the region. Rudrapur was made the headquarter of the district of Udham Singh Nagar, which was carved out from the Nainital district on 30 September 1995.After the Parliament of India passed the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 on 9 November 2000, Rudrapur became a part of Uttarakhand, the 27th state of the Republic of India.
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